The security of a building is directly related to its installation features. That’s why it’s so important to know what the main operating systems are, from the most obvious seen, to the ones that can only be evaluated using specific technical knowledge. Stated below are the most relevant points in accordance with the specifications manual of the European Commission Office for Infrastructure and Logistics.
The installation of telecommunications in a building encompasses the whole wiring system in the building, which includes general wiring, the telephone network, power equipment and the installation of television cables.
Door entry systems in a building connect the entrances from the street with each one of the private homes. Choosing a good supplier is of high importance, as this is what ensures the correct installation and a good operation over a long period of time, as well as the right maintenance service. Door entry systems are both telecommunications installations and components that are part of the security when keeping the door to the street closed and allowing particular access to visitors. In this regard, one can give the outdoor panel a proximity access control system (rfid) in order to facilitate the door opening to the resident and control the distribution of keys.
The DUOX system allows each neighbour to decide whether they want to opt for audio or door entry system. It is a system that uses the latest audio and digital video technology. So much so, that it has led to a complete innovation and a technological leap in the market. Not to mention, you only need two non-polarised wires to install it, which makes it quick to install and trouble-free. It supports star, cascade or distribution connections, among others, and does not require distributors or switchers. Installation can be completed using an outdoor panel, a power supply, line adaptor and indoor stations. With DUOX you can operate up to 1.000.000 users or addresses. Furthermore, installation can be carried out both on new buildings and when replacing old systems.
Moreover, horizontal wiring is located in the so-called telecommunications cabinet or rack. It must be located far from pressurized water pipelines or paper storage areas. It must enable access to the cable ducts or existing floor circuits; the easy integration into building systems (HVAC) and undertaking of operations. Its surface per room will vary from 8 m² (for 400 points) up to 12 m² (for 900 points).
As well as lifts, this domain includes hydraulic lifts, mechanical stairs and platform lifting elevators for people with limited mobility. Each block or compartment of the building must have a goods elevator that works both as a lift for the use of firefighters in an emergency situation and also for the evacuation of injured, ill or disabled people. In order to ensure accessibility, no area of the building must be at a higher distance than 50 metres from a lift or mechanical stairs. Furthermore, for security, people going from the inside car parks to the inside of the building must be able to exit the lifts on the ground floor.
Other recommendations regarding elevators are as follows:
- Ideally the waiting time should not be more than 25 seconds.
- The minimum speed will be 1.6 m/s. In the case of hydraulic lifts, the speed must be determined via a special study.
- Acceleration and deceleration must not be more than 1 m/s2.
Good lifts must be equipped with two lines of shock absorbers on the lower part and two handrail lines that are resistant to blows are also recommended. The handrails must be designed in such a way that they create the least amount of hassle for loading the lifts.
It is possible to increase the security in the lifts by incorporating a secure access system, so visitors may only enter in the floor of the neighbour who has granted the access, or allow the residents access only to those floors they are authorised.
Office buildings that are open to the public receive many visitors and must ensure that they have a secure surveillance of certain areas of the building. The installation of closed circuit video cameras and display monitors enable the implementation of an active surveillance system in which guards can have those areas under control. The new IP camera technology with integrated analytics allows you to implement a passive surveillance system that sounds an alarm when access to a sensitive area is detected or when the maximum capacity of an area has been surpassed. The use of video recorders allows you to view the images of those areas after an event has taken place.
In residential buildings with a garage it is good practice to equip it with video recording systems in order to increase its security. The mere presence of video cameras is a dissuasive element for passers-by, in addition the fact that it allows you to review scenes when an incident has occurred (a robbery or malfunction of vehicles or of the facility).
Fermax has a large range of CCTV solutions for residential buildings, commercial buildings and offices, which are constantly renewed in order to offer the most advanced operations for every situation.
Every building must have firefighting equipment, emergency lighting system, extraction devices and gas and smoke detector, with both escape routes and emergency exits. They must also be equipped with designated installations for people with limited mobility. All new projects must be subject to a specific security study, in which they identify the possible risks and the measures to eliminate or reduce them.
For gases or vapours that are heavier than air, it is essential to install a powerful mechanical ventilation system in order to get rid of contaminants from the building to a place where there is no danger of them being extracted by air inlets or through open windows, doors, etc.
Building management systems
These are the systems that allow us to both use and share information about the building. They are divided into four types:
- Level 1 (sensors, indicators, servo motors, etc.).
- Level 2 (local processing unit).
- Level 3 (management systems).
- Level 4 (building management systems). Known as BMS, monitor and control the facilities in a centralised way. They can work autonomously in local mode.
For high levels of security, each monitor must be able to see at least 40 continually updated values, which represent the state of the facility such as alarms and/or telecommunications systems with values. They must display a description and the state in each moment in the form of text, figures, symbols, etc. All technical equipment (pumps, ventilators, etc.) must be represented by different colours, depending on whether they are switched on and in normal operation (green), in alarm mode (red), or in discrepancy or cancellation (yellow). All data received in the system must be able to be stored in the control and calculation unit. The building’s management programme will enable a statistic record of any incident that has occurred within the building and the detection of any incident in the facilities.